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Course OSI and TCP/IP models

Understand the fundamentals of network architecture

Dive into our specialized course on the OSI and TCP/IP Models and master the essential fundamentals of network architecture. Learn in detail about the layers and protocols of these models, and understand how data is exchanged and routed across a network.

55 min

4.5/5

4,5/5

TCP/IP OSI model illustration

Contents

🔰 Introduction

The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model is a network communication standard for all computer systems.

It's a model of computer-to-computer communications that describes the functions required for communication and how these functions are organized.

This model, proposed by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization), was developed in the 1970s in response to the emergence of new computer telecommunication technologies. Its aim was to define the basics of how communications work, regardless of the manufacturer of the equipment used.

Its first publication in France dates from 1984 and can be found under the references :

  • ISO 7498-1 Basic model
  • ISO 7498-2 Safety architecture
  • ISO 7498-3 Naming and addressing
  • ISO 7498-4 General management framework

🕹️ Representation

Layers 1 to 3 mainly manage hardware elements, and layers 4 to 7 software elements.
OSI model representation

📡 Communication

Each layer is able to communicate with an adjacent layer and only an adjacent layer. For example, to transmit information between two distinct interlocutors A and B, it will be necessary to go through all the steps from layer 7 to layer 1 from A to B and back again.
communication OSI model

📚 Intermediates

It is possible to have intermediaries (switch, router) that don't need all the layers to function. These intermediaries come into play when information needs to be directed to the right interlocutor.

Let's take the case of an intermediary between two distinct interlocutors A and B, who only needs to go as far as layer 3 to do his job.

OSI model intermediary

🥊 The physical layer

physical layer OSI model

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TCP/IP OSI model illustration

Course OSI and TCP/IP models

Dive into our specialized course on the OSI and TCP/IP Models and master the essential fundamentals of network architecture. Learn in detail about the layers and protocols of these models, and understand how data is exchanged and routed across a network.

Read the course "

The OSI model (Open Systems Interconnection) is a reference model for communication between computer systems. It divides the communication process into seven layers, each with specific functions for exchanging information between applications and networks.

The TCP/IP model is a reference model that describes the protocols used for communication on the Internet. It is based on a protocol stack that includes transport protocols (TCP and UDP), network protocols (IP), data link protocols (Ethernet), and physical protocols (Ethernet, Wi-Fi, etc.).

The main differences between the OSI and TCP/IP models lie in their design and approach. The OSI model is more conceptual and abstract, with its seven distinct layers, while the TCP/IP model is more practical and closely linked to the implementation of Internet protocols. What's more, the OSI model is often used as a theoretical reference, whereas the TCP/IP model is more commonly used in today's networks.

The OSI model provides a conceptual framework for understanding the various aspects of network communication. It enables greater modularity and interoperability between systems, by separating the specific functions of each layer. It also serves as a basis for the development of new communication protocols and technologies.

The TCP/IP model is closely linked to Internet architecture and is widely used in today's networks. It offers simplicity of implementation and configuration, and great flexibility in supporting different types of communication. The TCP/IP model is also compatible with many existing network protocols and equipment.

Yes, the OSI and TCP/IP models are still relevant today. They provide a framework for understanding and designing computer networks, although the TCP/IP model is more commonly used in today's networks due to its close association with the Internet.

Yes, knowledge of the OSI and TCP/IP models is generally considered essential for working in the networking field. They provide a conceptual basis for understanding the protocols

 
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